Study Guide: Please include your notes, flashcards and any worksheets provided in class for studying.

Focus Questions:

Place your vocabulary words and other important concepts in the blanks and answer the questions using the text book and other non-fiction text given in class.

What is_______________?

What is the significance/importance of__________?

What is the impact of affect of_________?

(What is the result of______________?)

How are ___________and ________similar/different/connected?





5 themes of Geography

Location- Helps to describe WHERE on the earth “it” is. Where is_____________?

If you don’t know exactly where a place is, you can use a Compass Rose. For example, Milford is East of Stratford, CT. This is called Relative location. (not exact but close)

If you know the latitude/longitude coordinates, you know the place’s address or exact location. This is called absolute location.

Place- describes the uniqueness of an area by describing all of its natural and cultural features. The name of a place and its special physical and man-made landmarks, weather, land-forms, elevation, cultural style (language, customs, holidays,) help us to understand the “place” better. Think creating a “picture.”

A region is an area made-up of many places that share a common natural or physical feature. This helps people divide the world into smaller units for study or better understanding. The U.S. is a cultural/political region. It has many regions within it. You can also divide the world by cultural features such as different languages or religion, countries and provinces or natural features such as vegetation, and climate.

Movement: The theme describes how and why people, ideas, and products/goods move and their effect/result.

Cultural diffusion- the process of spreading ideas, languages, or customs from one culture to another through trade, war, migration, technology.

People move by foot, vehicles, boats, animals, they bring their culture with them.

They move because of persecution- to be treated harshly because of one’s cultural background, such as a religious beliefs or political beliefs. People that are persecuted or affected by war or geography(natural disasters) seek refuge (safe haven or shelter) in other countries. Also people seek employment, education, and freedom. All these are examples of Movement.

Ideas (beliefs/ideologies, inventions, music) move by phone, T.V. computer, radio. Ideas can create revolutions, war, and peace and make the world better or worse. Some ideologies spread fear others spread hope.

Products/goods move by boat, train, trucks, planes and cars for trade. Products can change the cultural landscape of an area and the economy(the exchange of money and services).

The effects of movement can be positive and negative (cultural diffusion/sharing of ideas-overpopulation, war, pollution.)

What is a Map? –a picture or drawing of an area on Earth

Physical Maps –

*show the physical features of an area, such as the mountains, rivers and lakes and elevations.

*Colors, Shading, and symbols are used to show differences in land elevations.

  • Elevation      is the height of land measured above sea level usually in feet or meters
  • Landforms are the physical      features of the land. Examples:      mountains, hills, volcanoes, plains, plateaus


Political Maps –

  • do      not show physical features.
  • show      state and national boundaries and capital and major cities.
  • Color      is used to make the areas stand out from one another (color has no special      meaning)


Thematic/ Special Purpose Maps

. shows maps with a focus on one subject or theme

Examples- religion, language, population maps, road maps, climate and land use maps

Road Map, Climate Map

Key or Legend – part of the map that shows what the symbols on a map represent or mean. Maps use shapes, labels, color, shading and texture)

Land Cover Map- shows what the main materials on a land are, such as Vegetation- plant life (trees, grasslands, and wetlands), glacier ice and deserts



A place is an   area that is defined by everything in it. All places have features that give   them personality and distinguish them from other places.

If you refer   to your school as a place, then that place would include walls, windows, gym,   cafeteria, classrooms, people, clothing, books, maps, mops, brooms, hallways,   mice (if you have them) and everything else in the school, including the   languages spoken.




A region is   an area that is defined by certain similar characteristics. Those unifying or   similar characteristics can be physical, natural, human, or cultural.


Movement   refers to the way people, products, information and ideas move from one place   to another. This can be local such as how did you get to school today, or it   can be global such as how did humans get to North America?

  Human-Environment Interaction

Human-environment   interaction looks at the relationships between people and their environment;   how people adapt to the environment and how they change it.

  • How do people depend on the environment? (Example: In ancient times, the        annual flooding of the Nile River produced good soil for growing crops.)       
  • How to people adapt to the environment? (Example: The ancient Egyptians        rebuilt their homes each year, after the annual flooding. As time went        on, they built their homes above the flood plain.)
  • How do people modify the environment? (Example: The ancient Egyptians        built irrigation ditches to help water the crops. In modern times, Egypt        built a dam to control the flood waters of the Nile River.)



How to use a map

Different types of maps

Analyzing maps for information (comparing and contrasting maps)

Define and know how to use concepts

Textbook (Map Master Skills Section) and Nystrom Atlas


Thematic Map/special purpose map(m12 m13) (Nystrom)

Land Cover map (Nystrom)

Vegetation (Nystrom)

Physical Map (m11)

Elevation (m11)

Relief (m11)

Landforms definition and examples-Nystrom and textbook m11

Political map (m10)

Scale(scale bar) (m8 m9)

Legend/key (m8)

Atlas (Nystrom)

Compass Rose (m8)

Intermediate Directions (m8)

Cardinal Directions (m8)





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